Avocado cultivation

The avocado is a fruit native from Mexico that has been gaining popularity in recent years. It belongs to the Lauraceae family of woody plants that grow in warm climates, such as laurel, camphor and cinnamon.

This fruit contains a large amount of vitamins (B5, B6, C, E, K), potassium and folic acid, in addition to its high calorie content, making it a natural source of energy.

» Avocado plantation

·When are avocado trees planted?

The best time of year to plant avocados is in spring.

·How are avocados trees planted?

Avocados are planted using the seed of the fruit itself, called the central stone. To do this, the seed is pierced at its thinnest part (the top) in order to facilitate germination.

It is important to note that the central stone is sown with the flat side towards the bottom. Thus, the upper part receives light and water, which is essential for rooting and growth.

Edaphoclimatic requirements


Avocados prefer light, deep, well-drained soils, rich in organic matter and with a neutral or slightly acid pH. These trees are very sensitive to waterlogging.

A good soil composition for avocados is one that contains peat, leaf compost, perlite, black soil and earthworm humus.


Avocados do not tolerate frost and very cold areas. Their ideal temperature is around 20oC, although it depends on the variety, and they need direct sun exposure.

In addition, abundant rainfall is also very important for its success. Prolonged droughts can lead to leaf drop and, as a consequence, to lower yields.

Finally, wind can seriously affect production, so plantations must be protected with windbreaks.

» Avocado care requirements

-Soil preparation for avocado cultivation

Land preparation for avocado cultivation consists of:

  • Leveling the ground
  • Eliminating and controling weeds
  • Ploughing the soil
  • Carrying out the marking of the terrain

-Avocado irrigation

Irrigation is the determining factor in the success of avocado cultivation. The best option is localised irrigation, to avoid the appearance of fungus and diseases due to excess humidity. Avocados prefer abundant but infrequent watering.

  • Pruning

The avocado tree needs no formative pruning and during the first three years of growth requires little pruning attention. Afterwards, maintenance consists of pruning branches with vertical growth and excessive height, those that are low or stuck to the ground, and weak and diseased stems, in order to facilitate handling and harvesting.

» Nutrients needed for avocado cultivation

Avocados require nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Nitrogen application allows for spring tree growth and fruit development. During the summer, it maintains vegetative and fruit growth.

Phosphorus is applied when the roots are actively growing, when there is the greatest absorption capacity.

As for potassium, it is applied during the months of May to January, when demand is highest from the fruit.

Micronutrients are also an essential part of avocado fertilisation. They require applications of copper, zinc, manganese and boron.

Avocado fertiliser

  • What fertilisers does the avocado need for its cultivation?

As we have already seen in the previous section, the main components that avocado fertiliser should contain are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, copper, zinc, manganese and boron.

For the organic cultivation of avocados organic fertilisers such as manure, compost or earthworm hummus, as well as those formulated with algae, minerals or other natural elements, shall be applied.

Some of Fervalle’s recommended fertilisers for avocado cultivation are Brotovalle, Algavalle, Almix, Fosmax or Cuvalle.

Brotovalle is a fertiliser with a high content of microelements (copper, manganese and zinc). With this fertiliser you get:

  • Increasing sap flow to improve fruit set and fruit set.
  • Inducing the synthesis of essential molecules
  • Increasing crop quality and yields
  • Reducing the effects of unfavourable situations for the plant.

Algavalle is an organic fertiliser whose formulation is based on a 35% algae extract together with amino acids. Its benefits are:

  • It provides a high content of calcium, micronutrients, vitamins, and organic matter.
  • It provides a high content of calcium, micronutrients, vitamins, and organic matter.
  • It enhances rooting, flowering, fruit set, ripening and fruit fattening
  • It increases phytohormone synthesis

Almix is a fertiliser rich in manganese and zinc in combination with seaweed extract. Its advantages are:

  • Increasing essential metabolism involved in fruit formation.
  • Providing natural growth regulators
  • Promoting fruit set and fruit formation
  • Acting as a protector against stressful situations in crops

Cuvalle is an organic copper formulation. Its functions include:

  • It stimulates growth
  • It activates self-defence
  • It corrects copper deficiencies

Fosmax has a formulation based on the presence of the polymeric complex (FPC) together with low molecular weight complexed phosphorus, potassium, calcium and micronutrients. The main advantages and benefits of this product are as follows:

  • It enables rapid assimilation of nutrients
  • It provides high nutritional bioavailability
  • It promotes the development of a strong root apparatus
  • It improves flowering on the plant
  • It improves fruit set and fruit ripening

» Avocado harvesting

Avocados are harvested by hand when the fat content of the fruit is adequate according to the established criteria.

Harvesting is different depending on the variety:

  • Low-altitude variety: between April and August
  • Medium heightvariety: between June and September
  • Variety of heights: between September and April

It is also worth mentioning that newly planted trees will take about 5 years to produce fruit.